There are three basic types of lighting that work together in your home:
Photo courtesy: Progress Lighting
1. Ambient (general lighting)
A good lighting plan combines all three types to light an area according to function and style.
Ambient lighting provides an area with overall illumination. Also known as general lighting, it radiates a comfortable level of brightness without glare and allows you to see and walk about safely. In some spaces such as laundry rooms, the ambient lighting also serves as the primary source of task lighting.
It can be accomplished with chandeliers, ceiling or wall-mounted fixtures, recessed or track lights and with lanterns mounted on the outside of the home. Having a central source of ambient light in all rooms is fundamental to a good lighting plan.
Photo courtesy: Lightolier
Task lighting helps you perform specific tasks, such as reading, grooming, preparing and cooking food, doing homework, working on hobbies, playing games and balancing your checkbook. It can be provided by recessed and track lighting, pendant lighting and under cabinet lighting, as well as by portable floor and desk lamps.
Task lighting should be free of distracting glare and shadows and should be bright enough to prevent eye strain.
Photo Courtesy: Tech Lighting
Accent lighting adds drama to a room by creating visual interest. As part of an interior design scheme, it is used to draw the eye to houseplants, paintings, sculptures and other prized possessions. It can also be used to highlight the texture of a brick or stone wall, window treatments or outdoor landscaping.
To be effective, accent lighting requires as least three times as much light on the focal point as the general lighting surrounding it.
Accent lighting is often provided by recessed and track lighting or wall-mounted picture lights.
Information from https://www.americanlightingassoc.com